martes, 23 de octubre de 2012

Parkinson Law , infinity business and surplus efficiency ( 11 min.)


Parkinson Law , infinity business and surplus efficiency ( 11 min.)



by
Juan B. Lorenzo de Membiela
Doctor of University of Valencia

Parkinson's law or law of the ascending pyramid was formulated for the first time in the magazine «The Economist», in 1955. Published by Cyril Northcote Parkinson, Professor of history at the University of Malaya, under the title 'Parkinson's law and other essays' in London in 1957. Condensed experiences from two British military agencies, air and Navy, for several years. He noted how the number of employees of the Admiralty and the Ministry of colonies increased in direct proportion to the reduction of the number of units of the British army and the process of disappearance of the Empire.

Between 1914 and 1928 the British Navy increased its auxiliary scale 78% and its officers on land and 40% administrative, although the total number of staff fell 32% decreasing 68% the number of warships in service.

The facts of the Parkinson's work covers a broad period of time and also includes causing the black Tuesday in 1929. Hence the appropriateness of referring to the same. This demonstrates that we we have a phenomenon beyond sociological crisis, military or financial, political regimes, or administrative or business structures.

When Northcote Parkinson was in the army as a major State of the Royal Air Force officer, recalls: «We were about seventy in my unit.» To be honest, none of us did much to win the war. (…)Mandated by our unit a Commodore. Below there was a Colonel. The Colonel, a frigate Captain low. Then came I: the Mayor (...). By a series of circumstances, Commodore fell ill, the Colonel was transferred, and the captain of frigate departed. And I was I.(…) Suddenly I realized that the job was ten times easier when everyone was out. There was no one that corrected me my grammar and, of course, nothing of the meetings. None of paperwork (...) » .

Today it is a law and a series of principles deferred, relegated as simple bureaucratic sarcasm, especially for authors of American influence (Chiavenato, 2006: 266) and Spanish (Morales, 2004: 104). However, he had incidence in Spain in the field of public service in the 1950s, very sensitive to issues of management. Professor Villar Palasí qualifies it for «humorous but truly inexorable» (1965,85).

It should not be forgotten that it was supported by several authors, among some, by Danish Poul Meyer management science specialist; the German, naturalized American, Fritz Morstein Marx and Polish, France, Georges Langrod resident.

It still has some economists, regarding compelled on the theory of the contemporary administration, as Henry Minztberg (2002: 275) Although in very specific aspects such as the growth of organizations.

Despite this, Parkinson's law is due to practice, to what has been lived. They are not results of theoretical speculation, and only, therefore, it deserves a careful reading.

Professor Jordana Pozas, published in «Documentation administrative» in 1959 some principles that make up this law. They are completed with annotations of other teachers (cf.: Fernandez, 1964,84).

Parkinson's law says: work expands to fill all the time available for its completion. I.e., the more time has to run an activity, more time will be taken for this purpose.

The principles of the Act are as follows:

1. A manager want to always multiply the number of subordinates, but never of his rivals. And that is to give more importance within the organization.

2. Workers are created work reciprocally, useless. I.e., the proliferation of unnecessary subordinates produces, as a result, a generation of equally unnecessary activities.

3. A Chief always invented work to their subordinates.

4 No relationship exists, or very little, between the work that has been carried out and the number of employees that has mandated.

5. Seven men are capable of causing more work than it did when I used to do it only to his boss.

6. The time used in the discussion of each issue of an agenda is because inverse to the importance of the subject under discussion.

7. The perfection of the structure of the company is only achieved when the institution is about to collapse.

8 Organizations are imperfect and its objectives are only achieved very late when they are already obsolete.

9. If the head of the organization is not one of the best will try to surround yourself with employees who are worse than him, and in turn, they will try to have subordinates who are worse than all.

10. Expenditures rise to cover all income.

One of the most controversial issues is that referring to the steady growth of the administration or company: regardless of the volume of work, the staff of a large company increases by a percentage ranging from 5,17% 6.56% a year.

The Parkinson's work resulted in numerous studies, among them, the Mason Haire in 1959, the of McWhinney in 1965 and the of Blau and Schoenherr in 1971.

He was Rushing, who in 1968 discovered that the growth of organizations affected two distinct components: the managers decreased while the administrative. This was due to the increase of specialisation in the company.

Another thing is if efficiency is achieved in this way or not. Blau and Schoenherr always increases, or in the worst cases, is maintained. But without a doubt, an excess of administrative apparatus arrived a moment because nothing can be kept in infinity (Mintzberg, 2002: 279) is unacceptable.

And another thing will be if efficiency is, today, the culmination of any management. Peter Senge, for example, qualifies it as a surface (Senge, 2008).

martes, 16 de octubre de 2012

The conflict and his social biology (9 min.).


The conflict and his social biology (9 min.). Juan B. Lorenzo de Membiela In «the dispute of the Sacrament"by Raphael, 1509 paint in the Vatican, the fathers of the Church are represented in controversial polemics. Different characters and temperaments are drawn, however, only concurs the unity of will and Word. Rafael was the definition of Nicholas of Cusa on divinity: "coincidentia oppositorum". Simmel employs the message of this painting to symbolize that the unit does not preclude the diversity or the conflict (2010: 19). The terms: creation and plagiarism, crisis and expansion, attraction and repulsion, sympathy and antipathy, are the result of divergent forces that necessarily arise in any social entity. The destruction not subtraction built, but, as a whole, integrates the end result. That is why it is positive. But let the destruction as forced and positive option means to justify the inevitable barbarism in society. To Edgar Morin, for example, the brutality of the conquest and domination are any civilization that arise, even refined forms of culture (Morin, 2009: 18-9). But admit it would lead us to justify a culture of death. The genocide, supported by Jews, as well by the Nazis in a systematic manner, either by Western society centuries ago: was through confinement in their cities; It was through inventions converted into truths by inertia once, as the poisoning of water wells to spread the plague or infanticide to use their blood in making the unleavened bread (cf.: Levi, 2000: 61). And justify the Stalinist deportations to the Gulag in Siberia and psychiatric hospitals (cf. Herling-Grudzinski, 2012). Or what happened in Katyn with Polish. Or the vertigo of the depravity in the island of Nazino. And justify the atrocities committed in Silesia against Catholic defeated German civilians and priests and religious. After the World War II, indifferent countries 'in victos' of the race (cf.: Kaps, 2008). Forgetting the leniency that the honor it imposes on the winner, as Alonso de Ercilla was: « (…)It is not overcome only glory nor is there the greatness and excellence but to know how to use the Vitoria illustrating more with the clemencia.». And justify extreme conflicts of the war in Bosnia between 1992-1995. And justify the cultural exiles on behalf of freedom and community consensus. Because in that intolerance takes refuge the destruction of thinking that prevents perceive its historic dimension, the man his spiritual career, to be aware of his truth and his freedom. The French Revolution of 1789, for example, force one social class against another destructive, not only generated crimes, unjustifiable always, they broke with a hierarchy to be implemented by a different but equally hierarchical. Rationalism was engine of this change that today, in the 21st century, we see languish. The error consisted of confused authoritarian power with the order. Only to conquer power. There is no society without hierarchy and one built exclusively on freedom succumbs to hands of the dissolution, first of despotism, then (Röpke, 2010: 139). Not all hierarchy is alienating but dispensed with all that implied a certain management giving way to the entropy of «emotionally instinctive». The truth became the underground heritage. Western constitutions seek to preserve the individual's comprehensive of any power. Offer, at least in the text, a sphere of inalienable personal freedom against the constraints of the community and the State. The revolutionary, destructive action offers edges confusing and unpredictable, because once started he immerses himself in what has been called the 'ecology of action» ((Morin, 2008,115).) It except its author becomes independence, is penetrated by the random, random, disfigurement and, finally, the environment is who takes possession. It is uncontrollable. It is harmful to anyone. Because there is no mastery of the complexity that cake thought, on the one hand, and the simple things on the other domain. The important thing in life is unexpected because we do not control the discovery, knowledge and action. The destructive go to an unpredictable, never known, always bleak ending. It is not the architecture of something new, but the decadence of what exists. A short dead-end. The will to nothingness (Spengler, 2011: 143). A departure without arrival. A constant fall, a dry vacuum. The creativity that builds avoids the narcotic of utopia to ravage.To generate the harmonic dissonance. The man suffers from a characteristic of immature species infantilism. His 'naivety' given the existence speaks of its fragility. Indicates a decline of social behavior (Lorenz, 1975: 67). And this can leave us at the mercy of storms without direction. As a species it has plunged into a competition so voracious that it avoids «power eternally active and sanadoramente creator». Determines its development as the most powerful biological factor preventing the good and useful to humanity as a whole (Lorenz, 1973). The destruction does not advance: the destroyed busts of the Caesars of Rome have not erased his memory for eternity.